Рубрика: English

English

Ex. 1

1. It has been raining all day. (rain)
2. How long have you been waiting for me? (you wait)
3. I have known my girlfriend for two months. (know)
4. I have done my homework. Now I can go out. (do)
5. I have been doing my homework for three hours. (do)
6. What has she been doing all afternoon (she do)? She has been reading that book you lent her, but she has not finished it yet. (read / not finish)
7. Amanda is a famous film star. She has made about ten films. (make)
8. What countries have you already visited ? (you already visit)
9. Mike has had a cold since last Thursday. (have)
10. I’m tired. I have been working very hard today. (work)
11. Susan has tried to reach you by phone several times. (try)
12.He has never danced with Kate. (never dance)
13. Someone has eaten my chocolate. (eat)
14. How long has she been working as a lawyer? (she work)
15. We have been living here for eight years. (live)

 

Ex.2

1. We have been playing basketball for the last few hours. (play)
2. She has never lived in Berlin. (never live)
3. There have been a lot of earthquakes in California. (be)
4. It has been raining hard since yesterday evening. (rain)
5. They have already planned a birthday party for her. (already plan)
6. The department store is still closed. It has not opened yet. (not open)
7. They have been living in Boston since they arrived in the USA ten years ago. (live)
8. Have you been working on anything interesting lately? (you work)
9. His company has made a lot of money in the last years. (make)
10. I left her a message but she has not called me back yet. (not call)
11. My wife is exhausted because she has been working too hard all day. (work)

12. How many times have you taken this exam? (you take)
13. The actress has deserved this award for a long time. (deserve)
14. Amanda has been learning Italian for more than three years. (learn)
15. How long has she studied French? (she study)

 

Ex. 3

1. How long  TV this afternoon? (watch)
2.  a mountain? (you climb)
3. They have been repairing the car since three o’ clock and they have not finished yet. (repair / not finish)
4. He has already arrived at the airport. (already arrive)
5. How long has he been waiting for Linda? (he wait)
6. Have you bought all the presents yet? (you buy)
7. He has just passed the driving test. (just pass)
8. They have been playing cards all day. (play)
9. She has never met him before. (never meet)
10. She has not seen her since Friday. (not see)
11. We have been learning English since 5 years. (learn)
12. They have been looking for him all day but they have not found him yet. (look / not find)
13. He has already woken up. (already wake up)
14. Fred and Jim have been learning for their exam all day. (learn)
15. The girls have been swimming in the pool for two hours. (swim)

 

Ex. 4

  1. I have not worked today.
  2. We have bought a new lamp.
  3. We have not planned our holiday yet.
  4. Where have you been ?
  5. He has written five letters.
  6. She has not seen him for a long time.
  7. Have you been at school?
  8. School has not started yet.
  9. Has he spoken to his boss?
  10. No, he has not had the time yet.
Рубрика: English

Facts about wine

1. Drinking red wine in small doses is better for you than not drinking at all!

It might come as a surprise, but several human trial studies have shown moderate red wine consumption to be better for you than not drinking at all. Why? The antioxidants found in red wine lower incidences of cardiovascular disease, mortality, and type-2 diabetes. Of course, if you drink more than you’re supposed to, the benefits are replaced by increased health risks. So, do yourself a favor, drink red wine in moderation.


whats-in-wine-tannin-polyphenol-catechin-winefolly-illustration

2. Red wine’s health benefits come from tannin.

Pretty much everything in wine that’s not alcohol or water is a type of polyphenol. Polyphenols include tannin, color pigment, wine aromas, resveratrol, and about 5,000 other plant compounds. Of these polyphenols, the most abundant in wine for health reasons are Procyanidins, which are a type of condensed tannin also found in green tea and dark chocolate. This compound is specifically associated with inhibiting cholesterol plaque in blood vessels, which is highly beneficial to heart health and longevity.


red-wine-tannin-level-pinot-cabernet-tannat-illustration

Wine Map of Australia

Wine Map of Australia

Get to know the regions and the wines of Australia on this illustrated map.

Buy Map

3. Some red wines are better for you than others.

Not all red wines are made the same. Some wines have significantly higher levels of “good for you stuff” than others (condensed tannins–see above). For example, Cabernet Sauvignon has more condensed tannins than Pinot Noir, but both wines have much less than Tannat, Petite Sirah, or Sagrantino. While it’s rather difficult to determine which wines are best (exactly), here are some clues:

  1. Dry red wines are better than sweet wines.
  2. Red wines with lower alcohol (preferably below 13% ABV) are better than high alcohol wines
  3. Red wines with higher tannin are better than low tannin wines.

old-wine-new-wine-differences-illustration-winefolly

4. Young red wines are better for you than old red wines.

We’ve been told for years that old wines are the best wines. It’s true that some wines taste better when well-aged, but when it comes to the health aspects of wine, old wine isn’t as good! Young red wines contain greater tannin levels than any other type of wine.


wine-grape-cutaway-illustration-winefolly

5. The color in red wine comes from the grape skins.

The color in wine comes from a plant pigment called anthocyanin, which is found in the skins of red grapes.


aging-red-wine-color-change-illustration-winefolly

6. As red wines age, they become lighter in color.

The color becomes less intense as wine ages. Very old wines are pale and translucent in color.


wine-grape-vitis-vinifera-family-tree-illustration-winefolly

7. Nearly all red wines are made from one species of grape.

All of the most common red wines, including Cabernet Sauvignon, Syrah, Merlot, and Pinot Noir are of just one species of grape: Vitis vinifera. There are certainly other species used for wine (there are some 65-70 vitis species), but they are very rarely used for wine. Vitis vinifera is commonly considered the wine grape species. And, get this, Vitis vinifera didn’t originate in France. It came from Eastern Europe!


red-wine-grapes-vs-white-grapes-illustration-winefolly

8. Red grapes are older than white wine grapes.

The yellow and green-colored grapes that produce white wines are thought to have originally come from a DNA mutation of red grapevines. This is a pretty convincing hypothesis, since Pinot Noir and Pinot Blanc share the same DNA.


sulfites-in-wine-illustration-by-wine-folly

9. Red wines commonly contain less sulfites than white wines.

In general, sulfite levels in red wines are lower than white wines. This is because red wines tend to be more chemically stable than white wines and do not degrade as quickly.


white-pinot-noir-winemaking-illustration-winefolly

11. Red wine grapes can be made into white wine.

Because the color comes from grape skins (and not the juice), it’s possible to make a white wine out of red grapes. The wine is made like white wine, without contact with the grape skins. This happens more than you might imagine. For example, a Blanc de Noirs Champagne is a white sparkling wine made with Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier (red) grapes.


aromas-in-red-wine-illustration-by-winefolly

12. Hundreds of aromas found in red wine come from just grapes.

All those aromas of cherry, berry, jam, and herbs found in a glass of red wine are derived from nothing more than fermented grapes and the aging wine in oak barrels. There are no flavor additives.