Wine is an alcoholic drink that is most often made from the juice of grapes.
Wine grapes are placed in large containers, then crushed or pressed to remove their juice. If white wine is being made, the grape skins are taken out of the juice. For red wine, the skins are left in. The juice is then fermented. Fermentation takes place when yeast turns the natural sugars found in grapes into alcohol. The skins of grapes have yeast on them, so yeast does not have to be added to make red wine but is added to make white wine. Fermentation takes from 10 to 30 days. After the grape juice has fermented, any material that has settled to the bottom of the container, including most of the yeast, is filtered out, or removed. Then the wine is put into large wooden containers and left to age. White wines do not need to be left very long, while red wines are usually left
for two to three years before they are bottled. Once they are bottled, some red wines are aged up to 20 years before they are drunk. Wild grapes were discovered about 6,000 years ago by people living in what is now Iran and Iraq. They picked these grapes and learned how to make them into wine. Their knowledge and the seeds of these wild grapes were passed down over the centuries, likely by traders, to other people, including the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans. They grew these grapes where they lived and made wine from them. The climate and soil of different regions produces different kinds of wines. Wine grapes grow best in a temperate climate, which is found in regions where temperatures never get very hot or very cold. In 2002, the countries that produced the most wine were France, Italy, Spain, the United States, and Australia.
A. True or False. Read the statements below. If the statement is true, write T beside the
sentence. If it is false, write F. If it is false, correct the information.
1. Different climates produce different kinds of wine. True
2. White wine needs to age longer than red wine. False
3. Iran is one of the largest producers of wine today. False
4. A tropical climate is the best climate for wine production. True
5. The origins of wine-making first began in Iran and Iraq. False
B. The Process of Making White Wine – Put the following statements in the correct order.
The grapes are placed in large containers
The grapes are crushed to remove the juice.
The grape skins are taken out of the juice.
The juice is fermented.
Yeast is added to the juice.
The material that has settled to the bottom is removed.
The wine is left to age.
The wine is put into large wooden containers.
C. Practice asking and answering the following questions with your partner. Then write
the answers in complete sentences.
1. What is the main difference in the production process of red and white wine?
Wine grapes are placed in large containers, then crushed or pressed to remove their juice. If white wine is being made, the grape skins are taken out of the juice. For red wine, the skins are left in.
2. What happens when fermentation takes place?
Fermentation takes place when yeast turns the natural sugars found in grapes into alcohol. The skins of grapes have yeast on them, so yeast doesn’t to be added to make red wine but is added to make white wine. Fermentation takes from 10 to 30 days.
3. How did the ancient Egyptians acquire the knowledge of wine-making?
They picked these grapes and learned how to make them into wine Their knowledge and the seeds of these wild grapes were passed down over the centuries, likely by traders, to other people, including ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans.
4. What conditions affect the kind of the wine that is made in a certain region?
5. What is the best climate for wine production?
Wine grapes grow best in a temperate climate, which is found in regions where temperatures never get very hot or very cold. In 2002, the countries that produced the most wine were France, Italy, Spain, the United States, and Australia.
A. Match the words on the left with the correct meaning on the right.
_____ 1. yeast a) ground, upper layer of earth
_____ 2. crush b) sink to the bottom
_____ 3. fermentation c) moderate; not very hot and not very cold
_____ 4. wild d) period of 100 years
_____ 5. settle e) a substance used in fermenting and in making bread rise
_____ 6. filter f) growing in natural conditions, not cultivated by farmers
_____ 7. century g) weather conditions
_____ 8. age h) press into small pieces
_____ 9. ancient i) belonging to times long ago
_____ 10. climate j) remove or separate or hold back certain substances
_____ 11. soil k) process of turning sugar into alcohol
_____ 12. temperate l) become mature or become ready for use
B. Choose the correct word from the left column above to complete the sentences below.
1. I just bottled this wine last week. Don’t open it for a few months. I want it to __________________ a little longer.
2. My child cannot swallow a whole pill. I have to __________________it and mix it with orange juice before she can take it.
3. I don’t like extreme temperatures. I prefer a more moderate __________________.
4. I don’t think I added enough __________________to these buns. They didn’t rise enough.
5. I like to go to the countryside and pick __________________berries in the fall. They taste so much better than the ones you buy in the grocery store.
6. Our crops will not be good this year. We didn’t get enough rain and the __________________ is very dry.
7. If you don’t stir the sugar in your coffee, it will all __________________to the bottom.
8. I want to visit Egypt and tour the __________________pyramids.
1. Is wine a popular beverage in your country? What is more popular, beer or wine?
2. Have you ever used wine in your cooking?
3. Do you think you would be able to taste the difference between a $20 bottle of wine and a $100 bottle? Why do you think some wines are so much more expensive than others?
4. Can you buy wine in a grocery store in your country? What kind of stores sell wine in your country?
5. In some countries many people are starting to make wine at home. Why do you think this is becoming such a popular hobby nowadays?
1. In general, wine making is very developed in our country. In our country wine is more developed than beer.
2. I myself don’t use wine in wine making, but in every restaurant they make fish with wine.
3. I wouldn’t taste it because I hate alcohol, but I can say it’s the same wine, just dry wines are expensive and semi-sweet cheaper.
4. Every supermarket in our country sells different kinds of wines, there is a great place for alcohol.
5. Winery is very developed in every part of the world. Yes, wine making can become a hobby, and then if it goes deeper, it can become a winemaker.